National Table Data

States Ranked by Black Male Graduation Rates

The graduation rate for Black Male students for the nation as a whole in 2009/10 was 52%, that for Latino males 60%. The graduation rate for White, non-Latino males was 78%. This is the first year that more than half of the nation’s Black males in grade 9 graduated with regular diplomas four years later.

A few states with small Black populations had graduation rates for their Black Male students higher than the national average graduation rate for White, non-Latino male students. The District of Columbia, Nebraska, New York and Wisconsin had conspicuously large gaps between their graduation rates for Black and White Male students. In this and the following tables graduation rates below the national averages, and gaps above the national average, are shown in red.

States with relatively small Black populations achieve high graduation rates for male Black students. States with low graduation rates for male Black students tend to have concentrations of those students in “drop-out factories.” Many states with high male Black graduation rates have smaller than average gaps between the graduation rates of male Black and male White, non-Latino students.

North Carolina, Maryland and California have the highest graduation rate for Black male students among the ten states with the largest Black enrollments, while New York, Illinois and Florida have the lowest. New York and Illinois have the largest gaps among these states, while North Carolina, Florida and Georgia have the smallest.

Arizona, New Jersey and California have the highest graduation rate for Latino Male students among the ten states with the largest Latino enrollments, while New York, Colorado and Georgia have the lowest. New York and Colorado have the largest gaps among these states, while Florida and New Mexico have the smallest.

STATE Black Male Rates Latino Male Rates White Male Rates GAP Black/ White GAP Latino/ White
Alabama 53% 58% 69% 15% 11%
Alaska 71% 93% 70% -1% -23%
Arizona 84% 68% 82% -2% 14%
Arkansas 59% 69% 73% 14% 3%
California 56% 64% 83% 26% 19%
Colorado 56% 46% 75% 19% 29%
Connecticut 59% 56% 85% 26% 29%
Delaware 47% 52% 68% 22% 16%
Dist. of Columbia 38% 46% 88% 50% 42%
Florida 47% 58% 62% 15% 4%
Georgia 49% 52% 65% 17% 13%
Hawaii 60% 60% 39% -21% -21%
Idaho 73% 73% 79% 6% 6%
Illinois 47% 59% 81% 34% 22%
Indiana 49% 70% 80% 31% 11%
Iowa 41% * 90% 49%
Kansas 54% 62% 80% 27% 18%
Kentucky 58% 62% 69% 11% 7%
Louisiana 49% 63% 63% 14% 0%
Maine 97% * 86% -11%
Maryland 57% 62% 81% 24% 19%
Massachusetts 60% 53% 83% 23% 30%
Michigan 54% 58% 80% 25% 22%
Minnesota 65% 59% 89% 24% 30%
Mississippi 51% 50% 62% 11% 12%
Missouri 56% 72% 81% 25% 10%
Montana 63% 71% 82% 18% 10%
Nebraska 44% 80% 86% 43% 7%
Nevada 52% 48% 61% 8% 13%
New Hampshire 60% 83% 80% 20% -2%
New Jersey 63% 66% 90% 27% 24%
New Mexico 49% 57% 62% 13% 5%
New York 37% 37% 78% 42% 41%
North Carolina 58% 50% 71% 13% 21%
North Dakota * * *
Ohio 45% 54% 80% 35% 26%
Oklahoma 64% 64% 76% 12% 12%
Oregon 72% 74% 77% 5% 3%
Pennsylvania 57% 59% 85% 28% 26%
Rhode Island 64% 57% 75% 11% 18%
South Carolina 46% 45% 62% 16% 18%
South Dakota 65% 62% 81% 16% 19%
Tennessee 62% 63% 76% 13% 13%
Texas 53% 55% 75% 22% 21%
Utah 76% 62% 84% 7% 21%
Vermont 82% 87% 81% -2% -6%
Virginia 54% 62% 77% 23% 16%
Washington 55% 56% 74% 19% 17%
West Virginia 62% 71% 69% 7% -1%
Wisconsin 55% 68% 92% 38% 25%
Wyoming 59% 74% 78% 19% 4%
USA 52% 58% 78% 26% 20%

* Indicates insufficient enrollment for analysis.

Lowest Ranked States For Black & Latino Males

The Hispanic population of New Mexico has two primary components: families who were immigrants from the Spanish Empire in the 18th century and more recent Mexican-American families. There are few White, non-Latinos, in the District of Columbia. The Latino population of New York includes quite disparate groups: Puerto Ricans, Dominicans and Mexican-Americans, among others.

STATE Black Male Grad Rates Latino Male Grad Rates White Male Grad Rates GAP Black/ White GAP Latino/ White
New York 37% 37% 78% 42% 41%
Dist. of Columbia 38% 46% 88% 50% 42%
Iowa 41% * 90% 49% -
Nebraska 44% 80% 86% 43% 7%
Ohio 45% 54% 80% 35% 26%
South Carolina 46% 45% 62% 16% 18%
Delaware 47% 52% 68% 22% 16%
Florida 47% 58% 62% 15% 4%
Illinois 47% 59% 81% 34% 22%
Georgia 49% 52% 65% 17% 13%
Indiana 49% 70% 80% 31% 11%
Louisiana 49% 63% 63% 14% 0%
New Mexico 49% 57% 62% 13% 5%

* Indicates insufficient enrollment for analysis.

Graduation rates for districts enrolling 10,000 or more black male students

This table displays estimated 2009/10 district four-year graduation rates for Black, Latino and White, non-Latino, male students, for districts enrolling 10,000 or more male Black students. Sort it by Black male graduation rates. The graduation rate for Black Male students for the nation as a whole in 2009/10 was 52%, that for Hispanic males 58%.

The graduation rate for White, non-Hispanic males was 78%. The national Black/White male graduation gap is 26 percentage points and the Latino/White gap is 20 percentage points. Of the five districts with the highest graduation rates for Black males, two are in Maryland and two in North Carolina. Of the districts with the lowest graduation rates for male Black students, two are in New York State and two in Georgia.

Sort by Black/White GAP. Most of the districts with negative gaps have very few White students. The Atlanta (GA) metropolitan area has notably large gaps, as do Houston (TX), Charleston (SC), New York City (NY) and the District of Columbia.

Four of the five districts with the largest numbers of Black male students have graduation rates under the national average for Black male students, which is 52%

DISTRICT Black Males Enrolled Black Male Grad Rates White Male Grad Rates Black/ White GAP
Montgomery County (MD) 16,760 74% 91% 17%
Newark (NJ) 11,293 74% 67% -7%
Cumberland County (NC) 13,805 68% 69% 1%
Baltimore County (MD) 16,789 67% 79% 12%
Guilford County (NC) 21,312 67% 80% 13%
Fort Bend (TX) 11,122 60% 83% 23%
Wake County (NC) 21,799 59% 85% 26%
Palm Beach County (FL) 46,724 55% 71% 16%
Prince George’s County (MD) 24,922 55% 60% 5%
Virginia Beach (VA) 10,013 54% 72% 18%
Broward County (FL) 49,883 52% 64% 12%
Cobb County (GA) 17,616 52% 77% 24%
Boston (MA) 11,102 50% 68% 18%
Jefferson Parish (LA) 10,518 50% 56% 6%
Jefferson County (KY) 44,149 49% 53% 4%
Miami-Dade (FL) 24,087 49% 71% 22%
Orange County (FL) 17,796 49% 67% 17%
Fulton County (FL) 19,311 47% 83% 36%
Hillsborough County (FL) 21,718 47% 70% 23%
Nashville-Davidson (TN) 17,901 47% 56% 9%
DeKalb County (GA) 10,702 46% 72% 26%
Polk County (FL) 36,494 46% 57% 11%
Milwaukee (WI) 23,792 45% 55% 10%
Charlotte-Mecklenburg (NC) 30,347 44% 72% 28%
Pittsburgh (PA) 7,956 44% 68% 24%
Memphis (TN) 46,936 43% 67% 24%
Atlanta (GA) 17,322 42% 73% 31%
East Baton Rouge Parish (LA) 19,597 42% 44% 2%
Columbus City (OH) 22,407 41% 43% 2%
Gwinnett County (GA) 16,016 41% 61% 20%
Los Angeles (CA) 34,257 41% 64% 23%
Baltimore City (MD) 36,682 40% 43% 4%
Houston (TX) 27,809 40% 73% 34%
Caddo Parish (LA) 13,457 39% 58% 19%
Chicago (IL) 91,097 39% 66% 28%
Mobile County (AL) 16,376 38% 49% 10%
Birmingham City (AL) 16,047 37% 46% 9%
Charleston (SC) 12,912 36% 67% 30%
Duval County (FL) 10,393 36% 53% 17%
Dallas (TX) 27,588 35% 50% 15%
DC 18,411 38% 88% 50%
Clayton County (GA) 20,938 35% 20% -14%
Pinellas County (FL) 10,295 34% 58% 24%
Montgomery County (AL) 11,354 33% 50% 17%
Cincinnati (OH) 12,329 33% 49% 16%
St. Louis (MO) 10,704 33% 41% 8%
Norfolk (VA) 10,898 32% 52% 20%
Jackson (MS) 17,148 28% 42% 14%
Cleveland (OH) 14,974 28% 37% 9%
New York City (NY) 160,474 28% 57% 29%
Richmond County (GA) 11,149 27% 32% 5%
Chatham County (GA) 12,021 27% 42% 15%
Philadelphia (PA) 47,343 24% 39% 14%
Clark County (NV) 22,995 22% 37% 15%
Detroit (MI) 40,041 20% 7% -13%
Rochester (NY) 10,559 9% 31% 22%

* Indicates insufficient enrollment for analysis.

NAEP Grade 8 Reading

National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), “the Nation’s Report Card,” measures student achievement at various grade levels in a variety of subject and skill areas. The following tables show the results of the 2011 NAEP for 8th Grade Reading, which is considered a good indicator of “value added” by schools.

The highest rate for Black males (19%, Connecticut) is the same as the lowest rate for White, non-Latino males (West Virginia). Male Black students in such states as Nebraska, Arkansas, South Carolina and California have very little chance of reaching proficiency in grade 8 Reading.

The highest grade 8 NAEP reading proficiency rate for Latino males (29%, Maryland) is higher than the rates for White, non-Latino males in several states. The low rates in Oregon, Wisconsin and Ohio are notable.

Some of the largest gaps in achievement on the 8th Grade NAEP Reading assessment are in states where White male students score higher than the national average for White male students. Ohio, Nebraska and some other states have comparatively large gaps resulting from particularly low Black male scores and above average White male scores.

Some of the largest gaps in achievement on the 8th Grade NAEP Reading assessment are in states where White male students score higher than the national average for White male students. The below average scores for Latinos and above average scores for White, non-Latinos in Massachusetts, Pennsylvania and Ohio result in particularly large gaps. There are very few cases where the White/Latino gap is greater than the White/Black gap.

State Black Male Latino Male White Male GAP White/Black GAP White/ Latino
Connecticut 19% 18% 48% 29% 30%
Maryland 17% 29% 45% 28% 16%
Colorado 15% 21% 43% 29% 23%
New York 15% 19% 39% 24% 20%
Alaska 13% 20% 34% 21% 14%
Arizona 13% 14% 35% 23% 21%
Delaware 13% 23% 33% 21% 10%
Iowa 13% 13% 30% 17% 17%
Massachusetts 13% 14% 48% 35% 35%
West Virginia 13% * 19% 5% -
Kansas 12% 17% 36% 24% 19%
Minnesota 12% 19% 38% 27% 19%
New Jersey 12% 16% 49% 37% 33%
Rhode Island 12% 12% 35% 23% 23%
Texas 12% 16% 41% 29% 25%
Washington 12% 12% 35% 22% 23%
Illinois 11% 22% 38% 27% 16%
Kentucky 11% * 34% 23% -
Nevada 11% 11% 29% 18% 18%
Oklahoma 11% 15% 25% 13% 10%
Virginia 11% 20% 37% 26% 17%
Florida 10% 22% 34% 24% 12%
Georgia 10% 13% 33% 23% 20%
Pennsylvania 10% 12% 39% 29% 27%
Indiana 9% 17% 31% 23% 14%
North Carolina 9% 16% 33% 25% 17%
Ohio 9% 8% 38% 30% 31%
Tennessee 9% * 26% 17% -
Wisconsin 9% 10% 34% 25% 24%
Alabama 8% * 30% 22% -
Dist. of Columbia 8% 14% * - -
Louisiana 8% * 26% 18% -
Missouri 8% * 33% 25% -
Michigan 7% 16% 29% 23% 13%
Mississippi 7% * 27% 19% -
Nebraska 7% 18% 34% 27% 16%
Arkansas 6% 20% 29% 23% 9%
South Carolina 6% * 31% 25% -
California 4% 13% 27% 23% 14%
Hawaii * 14% 33% - 19%
Idaho * 16% 32% - 16%
Maine * * 34% - -
Montana * * 38% - -
New Hampshire * * 35% - -
New Mexico * 14% 30% - 16%
North Dakota * * 30% - -
Oregon * 11% 33% - 22%
South Dakota * * 33% - -
Utah * 13% 34% - 21%
Vermont * * 37% - -
Wyoming * 23% 34% - 10%
USA 10% 16% 35% 25% 20%

* Indicates insufficient enrollment for analysis.

NAEP Grade 8 Reading in Urban Areas

NAEP measures achievement in selected urban areas, as well as the states. Austin, Boston (MA), Charlotte, Chicago (IL), Hillsborough County (FL), Houston (TX), Los Angeles (CA), Miami Dade and San Diego show above average achievement levels for White male students. Boston (MA), Charlotte, Miami-Dade (FL) and New York City (NY) show above average achievement levels for Black male students. Charlotte, Chicago (IL), Hillsborough (FL) and Miami-Dade (FL) show above average rates for male Latino students. Only Charlotte and Miami-Dade (FL) show above average rates for all three groups.

New York City (NY), Charlotte, Miami-Dade (FL) and Boston (MA) have above average percentages of Black male proficiency. Detroit (MI), Cleveland (OH) and Milwaukee (WI) have very low levels of Black male proficiency.

Miami-Dade (FL), Charlotte, Chicago (IL) and Hillsborough County (FL), Florida, have above average levels of Latino male proficiency. Cleveland (OH) and Philadelphia (PA) have very low levels of Latino male proficiency.

Cleveland (OH), Philadelphia (PA), Milwaukee (WI), New York City (NY) and Jefferson County all have smaller than average White/Black gaps. All also have lower than average White, non-Latino male proficiency percentages. Houston (TX), Austin, Charlotte and Boston (MA) have comparatively large White/Black gaps and higher than average White, non-Latino male proficiency percentages.

Half of these districts have smaller than average White/Latino gaps. Most of those have lower than average White, non-Latino male grade 8 Reading proficiency rates.

State Black Male Latino Male White Male GAP White/Black GAP White/ Latino
Albuquerque - 13% 30% - 17%
Atlanta (GA) 9% - - - -
Austin 9% 14% 49% 40% 35%
Baltimore City (MD) 7% - - - -
Boston (MA) 10% 11% 45% 35% 34%
Charlotte-Mecklenburg (NC) 12% 22% 50% 38% 28%
Chicago (IL) 9% 21% 36% 27% 15%
Cleveland (OH) 3% 4% 17% 14% 13%
Dallas (TX) 7% 9% - - -
Detroit (MI) 5% 10% - - -
Fresno - 8% 22% - 14%
Hillsborough County (FL) 9% 20% 39% 29% 19%
Houston (TX) 9% 11% 50% 40% 38%
Jefferson County (KY) 9% - 33% 24% -
Los Angeles (CA) 9% 9% 36% 27% 27%
Miami-Dade (FL) 11% 27% 41% 30% 14%
Milwaukee (WI) 3% 8% 21% 19% 14%
New York City (NY) 13% 15% 32% 19% 17%
Philadelphia (PA) 9% 4% 27% 18% 23%
San Diego 7% 14% 38% 31% 24%
USA 10% 16% 35% 25% 20%

* Indicates insufficient enrollment for analysis.

NAEP Grade 8 Math

8th Grade Mathematics achievement is a key predicator of success in high school graduation and college admission.

Massachusetts has the highest level of Black male Mathematics proficiency and a below average White/Black gap. Wisconsin, Nebraska and California are notable for their low level of Black male Mathematics proficiency and its large White/Black gap.

Texas has a large Latino population and a relatively high rate of Latino male Mathematics proficiency. California and New York also have large Latino populations, but relatively low levels of Latino male Mathematics proficiency.

The states with the smallest White/Black gaps have below average male White, non-Latino Mathematics proficiency percentages. The reverse is also the case.

The states with the smallest White/Latino gaps have below average male White, non-Latino Mathematics proficiency percentages. The reverse is also the case.

State Black Male Latino Male White Male GAP White/Black GAP White/ Latino
Alabama 7% 10% 30% 24% 20%
Alaska * 25% 49% - 24%
Arizona 14% 22% 48% 34% 27%
Arkansas 10% 21% 38% 28% 17%
California 9% 14% 42% 33% 29%
Colorado 20% 20% 55% 35% 36%
Connecticut 15% 12% 49% 34% 37%
Delaware 12% 21% 42% 29% 21%
DC 13% 18% * - -
Florida 9% 24% 38% 29% 14%
Georgia 10% 32% 41% 31% 9%
Hawaii * * 41% - -
Idaho * 17% 42% - 25%
Illinois 10% 19% 46% 36% 27%
Indiana 11% 21% 39% 28% 18%
Iowa * 13% 38% - 25%
Kansas 20% 23% 48% 28% 25%
Kentucky 14% 18% 35% 21% 16%
Louisiana 9% * 31% 22% -
Maine * * 39% - -
Maryland 17% 30% 59% 41% 29%
Massachusetts 26% 21% 58% 32% 37%
Michigan 7% 24% 37% 30% 13%
Minnesota 17% 24% 54% 37% 29%
Mississippi 8% * 28% 20% -
Missouri 7% * 38% 31% -
Montana * * 50% - -
Nebraska 8% 14% 41% 34% 27%
Nevada 16% 16% 44% 27% 27%
New Hampshire * * 44% - -
New Jersey 22% 23% 61% 39% 38%
New Mexico * 18% 41% - 23%
New York 11% 14% 40% 29% 27%
North Carolina 15% 21% 49% 34% 28%
North Dakota * * 49% - -
Ohio 13% 25% 47% 34% 23%
Oklahoma 15% 16% 34% 19% 18%
Oregon * 19% 40% - 21%
Pennsylvania 10% 27% 49% 39% 22%
Rhode Island 17% 12% 43% 25% 31%
South Carolina 13% 25% 42% 29% 17%
South Dakota * * 48% - -
Tennessee 10% 13% 31% 21% 17%
Texas 18% 32% 60% 41% 28%
Utah * 8% 43% - 35%
Vermont * * 46% - -
Virginia 16% 25% 49% 33% 24%
Washington 11% 22% 47% 36% 25%
West Virginia 15% * 23% 8% -
Wisconsin 8% 24% 49% 41% 25%
Wyoming * 21% 45% - 24%
USA 12% 21% 45% 33% 24%

* Indicates insufficient enrollment for analysis.

NAEP Grade 8 Math in Urban Areas

Boston (MA) is one of the few cities to show shows similarly high mathematics proficiency rates for both Black male and Latino male students, while several districts show similarly low mathematics proficiency rates for both Black males and Latino males.

Boston (MA)’s male Black students achieve at substantially higher levels than their peers in other urban districts. The low levels of achievement in Fresno, Cleveland (OH), Milwaukee (WI) and Detroit (MI) are notable.

The highest proficiency rates for Latino males are seen in Houston (TX), Charlotte, Miami-Dade (FL), and Austin. Latino male students in those four districts, as well as those in Hillsborough (FL) and Dallas (TX), perform as well or better than Black male students in Boston (MA). Fresno, Milwaukee (WI), and Detroit (MI) show the lowest Latino male proficiency rates.

Districts with below average Black/White gaps show low performance amongst all groups of males. Houston (TX), Charlotte, and Atlanta (GA) have roughly average Black male proficiency rates but their Black/White gaps are extraordinary.

The districts with below average Latino/White gaps are those in which all groups perform poorly, not those in which Latino males do well. The gaps in San Diego, Houston (TX), Charlotte, and Austin are very large.

State Black Male Latino Male White Male GAP White/Black GAP White/ Latino
Albuquerque * 18% 43% - 24%
Atlanta (GA) 11% * 70% 58% -
Austin * 24% 67% - 44%
Baltimore City (MD) 11% * * - -
Boston (MA) 22% 22% 56% 35% 34%
Charlotte-Mecklenburg (NC) 14% 26% 69% 55% 42%
Chicago (IL) 9% 21% 49% 40% 28%
Cleveland (OH) 6% 14% 29% 23% 15%
Dallas (TX) 9% 22% * - -
Detroit (MI) 3% 8% * - -
DC 8% 15% * - -
Fresno 7% 9% 35% 27% 25%
Hillsborough County (FL) 10% 22% 44% 34% 23%
Houston (TX) 15% 28% 70% 55% 42%
Jefferson County (KY) 13% * 32% 19% -
Los Angeles (CA) 8% 11% 46% 38% 35%
Miami-Dade (FL) 10% 26% 43% 33% 17%
Milwaukee (WI) 5% 9% 20% 15% 11%
New York City (NY) 10% 13% 47% 37% 34%
Philadelphia (PA) 13% 12% 33% 21% 22%
San Diego 9% 16% 56% 48% 40%
USA 12% 21% 45% 32% 24%

* Indicates insufficient enrollment for analysis.

Percentage of Male Students in Gifted and Talented Programs

Nashville and Memphis (TN) conspicuously under-represent male Black students in Gifted and Talented programs, as do Caddo Parrish and St. Louis (MO). Milwaukee (WI) and Montgomery County (MD) appear not to discriminate against male Black student participation in these often highly resourced programs.

State Black Male Latino Male White Male Black/White Ratio Latino/White Ratio
Atlanta (GA) 5% 4% 32% 7 9
Baltimore City (MD) 3% 6% 5% 2 1
Baltimore County (MD) 12% 11% 24% 2 2
Birmingham City (AL) 3% 3% 11% 3 4
Boston (MA) 1% 1% 3% 3 4
Broward County (FL) 2% 4% 8% 5 2
Caddo Parish (LA) 1% 1% 9% 8 6
Charleston (SC) 4% 6% 26% 7 4
Charlotte-Mecklenburg (NC) 4% 3% 21% 6 8
Chatham County (GA) 5% 8% 19% 4 2
Chicago (IL) 1% 1% 4% 3 4
Cincinnati City (OH) 2% 4% 11% 6 3
Clark County (NV) 1% 1% 3% 4 4
Clayton County (GA) 4% 3% 7% 2 2
Cleveland City (OH) 4% 3% 10% 2 3
Cobb County (GA) 5% 4% 23% 5 6
Columbus City (OH) 2% 3% 8% 5 3
Cumberland County 2% 3% 8% 5 3
Miami-Dade (FL) 5% 9% 21% 4 2
Dallas (TX) 7% 9% 19% 3 2
DeKalb County (GA) 6% 5% 34% 5 7
Detroit City (MI) 0% 0% 0% - -
District Of Columbia 0% 0% 0% - -
Duval County (FL) 1% 1% 5% 6 3
East Baton Rouge Parish (LA) 2% 2% 11% 6 5
Fort Bend (TX) 3% 3% 13% 5 5
Fulton County (FL) 6% 6% 30% 6 5
Guilford County (NC) 7% 9% 29% 4 3
Gwinnett County (GA) 6% 5% 23% 4 4
Hillsborough County (FL) 1% 2% 6% 5 3
Houston (TX) 6% 10% 37% 7 4
Jackson (MS) 6% 10% 19% 3 2
Jefferson County (KY) 3% 3% 10% 4 4
Jefferson Parish (LA) 3% 4% 9% 3 2
Los Angeles (CA) 6% 7% 23% 4 3
Memphis City (TN) 1% 1% 6% 9 12
Milwaukee (WI) 4% 5% 4% 1 1
Mobile County (AL) 4% 6% 10% 3 2
Montgomery County (AL) 2% 2% 5% 4 2
Montgomery County (MD) 42% 38% 61% 1 2
Nashville-Davidson (TN) 2% 1% 19% 9 15
Newark City (NJ) 4% 6% 8% 2 1
Norfolk City (VA) 7% 7% 23% 3 3
Orange County (FL) 1% 3% 11% 7 4
Palm Beach County (FL) 1% 2% 8% 7 3
Philadelphia City (PA) 2% 2% 9% 4 5
Pinellas County (FL) 1% 2% 7% 6 3
Polk County (FL) 2% 2% 6% 3 3
Prince George’s County (MD) 8% 5% 26% 3 5
Richmond County (GA) 1% 0% 4% 3 -
Rochester (NY) City 1% 1% 2% 2 2
St. Louis (MO) City 1% 3% 11% 8 4
Virginia Beach City (VA) 4% 7% 15% 3 2
Wake County (NC) 5% 5% 26% 5 5

Percentages Of Male Students Classified As Intellectually Disabled

“Intellectually Disabled” replaces the “Mentally Retarded” Special Education category formerly used in this table.

Atlanta (GA) and Wake County (NC) appear to find large discrepancies in the distribution of intelligence between male Black and male White, non-Latino students. This is surprising in the light of the definition of the category and scientific understanding of the issue.

State Black Male Latino Male White Male Black/White Ratio Latino/White Ratio
Atlanta (GA) 1.49% 1.85% 0.18% 8.3 10.3
Baltimore City (MD) 1.53% 0.75% 1.30% 1.2 0.6
Baltimore County (MD) 0.80% 0.33% 0.46% 1.7 0.7
Birmingham City (AL) 2.14% 0.00% 4% 0.6 -
Boston (MA) 3.16% 2.22% 1.71% 1.8 1.3
Broward County (FL) 1.33% 0.55% 0.53% 2.5 1
Caddo Parish (LA) 2.53% 0.00% 0.79% 3.2 0
Charleston (SC) 2.46% 0.73% 0.69% 3.6 1.1
Charlotte-Mecklenburg (NC) 2.14% 0.67% 0.66% 3.2 1
Chatham County (GA) 1.57% 0.54% 0.51% 3.1 1.1
Chicago (IL) 2.31% 1.02% 1.25% 1.9 0.8
Cincinnati City (OH) 4.00% 1.33% 2.20% 1.8 0.6
Clark County (NV) 0.61% 0.39% 0.30% 2 1.3
Clayton County (GA) 1.23% 0.72% 2.36% 0.5 0.3
Cleveland City (OH) 4.11% 2.32% 2.50% 1.6 0.9
Cobb County (GA) 1.00% 0.55% 0.45% 2.2 1.2
Columbus City (OH) 2.25% 0.61% 2.00% 1.1 0.3
Cumberland County 2.09% 1.01% 0.95% 2.2 1.1
Miami-Dade (FL) 1.66% 0.66% 0.62% 2.7 1.1
Dallas (TX) 1.56% 0.67% 0.85% 1.8 0.8
DeKalb County (GA) 1.58% 0.62% 0.62% 2.5 1
Detroit City (MI) 3.41% 0.92% 3.43% 1 0.3
District Of Columbia 1.89% 0.49% 0.00% - -
Duval County (FL) 2.99% 1.10% 1.29% 2.3 0.9
East Baton Rouge Parish (LA) 0.95% 0.00% 0.57% 1.7 0
Fort Bend (TX) 1.23% 0.72% 0.34% 3.6 2.1
Fulton County (FL) 1.07% 0.47% 0.41% 2.6 1.1
Guilford County (NC) 1.68% 3.03% 0.59% 2.9 5.2
Gwinnett County (GA) 1.14% 0.66% 0.65% 1.8 1
Hillsborough County (FL) 2.77% 1.06% 1.02% 2.7 1
Houston (TX) 1.56% 0.69% 0.49% 3.2 1.4
Jackson (MS) 1.34% 0.00% 0.00% - -
Jefferson County (KY) 3.60% 1.26% 1.82% 2 0.7
Jefferson Parish (LA) 2.55% 0.72% 1.21% 2.1 0.6
Los Angeles (CA) 1.04% 0.66% 0.46% 2.2 1.4
Memphis City (TN) 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% - -
Milwaukee (WI) 2.72% 1.32% 1.88% 1.4 0.7
Mobile County (AL) 1.21% 0.00% 0.70% 1.7 -
Montgomery County (AL) 1.25% 0.00% - 3.6 0.35
Montgomery County (MD) 0.68% 0.45% 0.38% 1.8 1.2
Nashville-Davidson (TN) 0.00% 0.00% 0.00% - -
Newark City (NJ) 0.49% 0.39% 0.34% 1.5 1.1
Norfolk City (VA) 1.33% 0.68% 0.97% 1.4 0.7
Orange County (FL) 2.81% 1.21% 0.93% 3 1.3
Palm Beach County (FL) 1.93% 0.87% 0.65% 3 1.3
Philadelphia City (PA) 1.96% 1.67% 1.53% 1.3 1.1
Pinellas County (FL) 2.57% 0.93% 0.93% 2.8 1
Polk County (FL) 3.41% 1.48% 1.59% 2.1 0.9
Prince George’s County (MD) 0.88% 0.35% 0.82% 1.1 0.4
Richmond County (GA) 2.22% 4.35% 1.00% 2.2 4.4
Rochester (NY) City 1.46% 0.98% 1.20% 1.2 0.8
St. Louis (MO) City 1.83% 0.00% 0.00% - -
Virginia Beach City (VA) 0.96% 0.67% 0.45% 2.1 1.5
Wake County (NC) 2.01% 0.92% 0.36% 5.6 2.6

Percentages Of Male Students In Advanced Placement Mathematics Classes

The College Board advises that Advanced Placement (AP) classes should be open to all students, but admission to AP classes is at the discretion of local education authorities.

East Baton Rouge and Caddo Parish (LA)es in Louisiana, Pinellas County (FL) in Florida, and Fulton County (FL) in Georgia show conspicuously low rates of Black male enrollment relative to White male enrollment in AP mathematics classes

State Black Male Latino Male White Male Black/White Ratio Latino/White Ratio
Atlanta (GA) 0.70% 0.00% 1.08% 1.5 -
Baltimore City (MD) 0.30% 0.00% 0.72% 2.4 -
Baltimore County (MD) 0.77% 0.50% 2.23% 2.9 4.5
Birmingham City (AL) 0.19% 0.00%   0 -
Boston (MA) 0.67% 0.57% 1.71% 2.6 3
Broward County (FL) 0.24% 0.69% 1.04% 4.3 1.5
Caddo Parish (LA) 0.07% 0.00% 0.79% 10.6 -
Charleston (SC) 0.20% 0.36% 1.27% 6.5 3.5
Charlotte-Mecklenburg (NC) 0.65% 0.71% 3.52% 5.4 4.9
Chatham County (GA) 0.09% 0.54% 0.51% 5.7 0.9
Chicago (IL) 0.28% 0.39% 1.15% 4.1 2.9
Cincinnati City (OH) 0.18% 0.00% 1.16% 6.6 -
Clark County (NV) 0.26% 0.25% 0.83% 3.2 3.4
Clayton County (GA) 0.26% 0.12% 0.47% 1.8 3.9
Cleveland City (OH) 0.10% 0.14% 0.12% 1.2 0.8
Cobb County (GA) 0.66% 0.45% 2.68% 4.1 5.9
Columbus City (OH) 0.28% 0.00% 0.62% 2.2 -
Cumberland County 0.48% 1.01% 1.25% 2.6 1.2
Miami-Dade (FL) 0.35% 0.69% 1.49% 4.3 2.2
Dallas (TX) 0.66% 0.69% 2.82% 4.3 4.1
DeKalb County (GA) 0.52% 0.35% 1.96% 3.8 5.6
Detroit City (MI) 0.15% 0.26% 0.43% 2.9 1.6
District Of Columbia 0.29% 0.49% 1.64% 5.7 3.3
Duval County (FL) 0.41% 0.70% 1.48% 3.6 2.1
East Baton Rouge Parish (LA) 0.17% 0.00% 1.89% 10.9 -
Fort Bend (TX) 0.57% 0.44% 2.83% 5 6.4
Fulton County (FL) 0.39% 0.66% 3.31% 8.5 5
Guilford County (NC) 0.56% 0.76% 2.66% 4.7 3.5
Gwinnett County (GA) 0.69% 0.71% 2.52% 3.6 3.6
Hillsborough County (FL) 0.44% 0.72% 1.74% 3.9 2.4
Houston (TX) 0.28% 0.37% 1.59% 5.8 4.2
Jackson (MS) 0.23% 0.00% 0.00% 0 -
Jefferson County (KY) 0.25% 0.36% 1.08% 4.4 3
Jefferson Parish (LA) 0.11% 0.18% 0.30% 2.8 1.7
Los Angeles (CA) 0.63% 0.63% 1.50% 2.4 2.4
Memphis City (TN) 0.25% 0.13% 1.60% 6.3 12.2
Milwaukee (WI) 0.06% 0.10% 0.16% 2.5 1.5
Mobile County (AL) 0.03% 0.00%   0 -
Montgomery County (AL) 0.28% 0.00%   0 -
Montgomery County (MD) 0.95% 0.87% 3.76% 4 4.3
Nashville-Davidson (TN) 0.44% 0.32% 1.28% 2.9 4
Newark City (NJ) 0.19% 0.13% 0.34% 1.8 2.6
Norfolk City (VA) 0.46% 0.68% 2.55% 5.6 3.8
Orange County (FL) 0.36% 0.44% 1.93% 5.3 4.4
Palm Beach County (FL) 0.31% 0.79% 1.92% 6.2 2.4
Philadelphia City (PA) 4.02% 2.98% 9.53% 2.4 3.2
Pinellas County (FL) 0.14% 0.46% 1.33% 9.6 2.9
Polk County (FL) 0.18% 0.42% 0.66% 3.7 1.5
Prince George’s County (MD) 0.48% 0.27% 1.80% 3.7 6.6
Richmond County (GA) 0.50% 0.00% 1.14% 2.3 -
Rochester (NY) City 0.14% 0.28% 0.60% 4.2 2.1
St. Louis (MO) City 0.28% 0.00% 0.52% 1.9 -
Virginia Beach City (VA) 0.63% 1.12% 2.04% 3.2 1.8
Wake County (NC) 0.38% 0.46% 2.68% 7.1 5.8

Out-Of-School Suspensions

State Sample Suspension Risk For One Or More Suspensions By Race/Ethnicity
2009-2010 (Male and Female Combined)

*Source: Losen, Daniel J. and Jonathan Gillispie. Opportunities Suspended: The Disparate Impact of Disciplinary Exclusion from School. The Center for Civil Rights Remedies at The Civil Rights Project, August 2012. Source: CRDC, 2009-2010 (numbers from national sample rounded to one decimal). Some states omitted because of data accuracy issues.
**MD and WI each had a large district removed from the sample so their estimates should be reviewed with extra caution.

State Black Latino White Black/White Ratio Latino/White Ratio
Alabama 16.3 4.9 5.6 2.9 0.9
Alaska 10.9 5.2 4.5 2.4 1.2
Arizona 12.5 7.1 4.6 2.7 1.5
Arkansas 18.5 6.3 5.3 3.5 1.2
California 17.7 7.5 5.6 3.2 1.3
Colorado 13.9 8.3 4.3 3.2 1.9
Connecticut 20.4 13.5 2.4 8.5 5.6
Delaware 21.8 10.2 7.3 3 1.4
DC * - - - - -
Florida * - - - - -
Georgia 17.1 6 4.9 3.5 1.2
Hawaii * - - - - -
Idaho 4.2 4.7 3.2 1.3 1.5
Illinois 25.3 7.8 3.9 6.5 2
Indiana 19.5 8.4 5.9 3.3 1.4
Iowa 13.9 5 3 4.6 1.7
Kansas 16.8 7.1 4 4.2 1.8
Kentucky 13.9 4.1 4.6 3 0.9
Louisiana 15.3 5.9 7 2.2 0.8
Maine 8.7 2.2 4.6 1.9 0.5
Maryland ** 11 4.3 4.9 2.2 0.9
Massachusetts 11.5 12.3 4.3 2.7 2.9
Michigan 22.1 8 6.2 3.6 1.3
Minnesota 17.6 5.5 2.3 7.7 2.4
Mississippi 17.6 4.7 6.4 2.8 0.7
Missouri 22.8 5.2 4.4 5.2 1.2
Montana 3.4 3.9 3.8 0.9 1
Nebraska 17.6 5.3 3.6 4.9 1.5
Nevada 22.6 12.3 8.2 2.8 1.5
New Hampshire 11.4 9.2 6.1 1.9 1.5
New Jersey 12 6.6 3.3 3.6 2
New Mexico 6.1 6.4 4.4 1.4 1.5
New York* - - - - -
North Carolina 16.3 6.8 6.1 2.7 1.1
North Dakota 3.6 2.2 1.6 2.3 1.4
Ohio 18.6 7.6 4.6 4 1.7
Oklahoma 18.3 7 5.8 3.2 1.2
Oregon 12.5 6.7 4.9 2.6 1.4
Pennsylvania 16.7 10.2 3.6 4.6 2.8
Rhode Island 15.6 11.2 7 2.2 1.6
South Carolina 21 7.8 7.9 2.7 1
South Dakota 7.1 5.6 2.2 3.2 2.5
Tennessee 21.1 6 4.7 4.5 1.3
Texas 15.4 6.5 3.2 4.8 2
Utah 6.2 5 2.1 3 2.4
Vermont 6.5 0.9 4.4 1.5 0.2
Virginia 16.6 5.7 5 3.3 1.1
Washington 13.6 8.7 5.8 2.3 1.5
West Virginia 18.6 7.6 8.7 2.1 0.9
Wisconsin ** 18.5 5.8 3.2 5.8 1.8
Wyoming 13.8 8 10 1.4 0.8

* Indicates insufficient enrollment for analysis.

[1]Graduation rates are calculated as the percentage of the students enrolled in ninth grade receiving diplomas four years later. This straight-forward measure is similar to those used by many researchers, states and districts. It allows “apple to apple” comparisons of varied districts and states. Enrollment statistics are from the National Center for Education Statistics, unless otherwise noted. Graduation rates use the number of graduates obtained from state data; estimated from state data and NCES data; or estimated from historical data trends.
[2]Many numbers here and elsewhere in this report are rounded to the nearest whole number.